Rosidae: Euphorbiales. The Euphorbiaceae are mostly monoecious herbs, shrubs, and trees, sometimes succulent and cactus-like, comprising one of the largest families of plants with about 300 genera and 7,500 species that are further characterized by the frequent occurrence of milky sap. The leaves are mostly alternate but may be opposite or whorled and they are simple, or compound, or sometimes highly reduced. Stipules are generally present but may be reduced to hairs, glands or spines. The flowers are unisexual and usually actinomorphic. They may be highly reduced by suppression of parts, in the extreme form consisting of a naked stamen as a male flower and a naked pistil as a female flower. A specialized type of miniature inflorescence called a cyathium occurs in about 1,500 species comprising the genera Euphorbia and Chamaesyce. The cyathium consists of a single naked pistillate flower surrounded by cymes of naked staminate flowers, each consisting of a single stamen. These flowers are all enclosed in a cup-like involucre that typically is provided with peripheral nectaries and petaloid appendages such that the whole aggregation closely resembles a single flower. In other members of the family the flowers and inflorescences are more ordinary in appearance, with male and female flowers typically bearing a 5-merous calyx and corolla of distinct segments, although the corolla is sometimes absent. In these forms the androecium most commonly consists of 5, 10 or sometimes numerous distinct or monadelphous stamens. The gynoecium of female flowers consists of a single compound pistil of typically 3 carpels, an equal number of styles or primary style branches, and a superior ovary with typically 3 locules, each bearing 1 or 2 collateral, axile-apical pendulous ovules. The fruit is usually a capsular schizocarp.

Each "thumbnail" image below is linked to a larger photograph.

Jatropha integerrima, rose-flowered jatropha. This is an example of an ordinary inflorescence of unisexual flowers. The male flowers have a monadelphous androecium of 10 stamens and the female flowers have a tricarpellate pistil and vestigial stamens. Both types of flowers have a biseriate perianth of sepals and petals.
Ricinus communis, castor bean. This very poisonous plant which provides castor oil is naturalized in Hawaii. Notice the female flowers in the upper part of the inflorescence and the male flowers below. Petals are absent and the calyx is caducous. The tiny stamens are very numerous, up to 1,000 per staminate flower.
Phyllanthus debilis, niruri. Although not as showy as the preceding example, the flowers here are fairly normal in appearance. Two open male flowers can be seen on the left and three open female flowers are on the right. Small stipules are also visible.
Hura crepitans, sandbox tree. This unusual species has the female flower reduced to a naked pistil with a reddish peltate stigma as visible near the top left of the photo. A cone-like cluster of reddish male flowers is nearby. The fruit is also exceptional as it has many carpels that separate explosively into 1-seeded segments.
Acalypha hispida, chenille plant. Shrub, probably from the E. Indies, with long pendulous catkins of female flowers with feathery stigmas. Male flowers seldom appear on this species in Hawaii.
Acalypha wilkesiana, copper leaf, Jacobs coat, beefsteak plant. Shrub from Fiji with red-mottled, bronzy-green. leaves and tiny flowers. Many cultivars are grown for the ornamental value of the foliage. Location: Ewa-Mauka corner of St. John.
Manihot esculenta, tapioca, cassava, manioc. Shrub from Brazil, widely cultivated in the tropics for its large, tuberous roots that provide an excellent source of starch.
Aleurites moluccana, kukui, candle nut tree. A polynesian tree probably brought to Hawaii by early polynesian settlers. Official tree of the State of Hawaii. One of the most important plants of the old Hawaiians, the kukui was used for light, canoes, fishing, tanning, leis, catching birds, and as a source of food, medicine and dye. The pale green foliage of kukui trees, which commonly grow at the head of hanging valleys, stands out from great distances.
Euphorbia sp. This is an example of a specialized, miniature inflorescence that mimics a single flower. The general term for this condition is a pseudanthium but in this family the pseudanthium is so specialized it is called a cyathium. It consists of a single central naked female flower surrounded by cymes of naked male flowers each consisting of a single stamen. These naked flowers are surrounded by a cup-like involucre that bears glands and petal-like appendages, although in this species they are not particularly showy. Note the three styles and milky latex also visible in the photo.
Euphorbia sp. This is another example of the typical pseudanthium or cyathium found in the family. Note the petal-like peripheral appendages surrounding the unisexual flowers. It is characteristic for the single female flower in the center to become deflexed to one side as it matures. Note the 3 style branches.
Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia. This ornamental species has very conspicuous red bracts associated with the cyathea. Notice also a large yellow gland on the involucral cup of each cyatheum.
Euphorbia splendens, crown of thorns. Ornamental shrub from Madagascar. Legend suggests that the bracts were white until the plant was worn by Christ as the "crown of thorns," whereupon they became red.
Chamaesyce hypericifolia, graceful spurge. Note the cyatheum structure, stipules, and milky sap.
Chamaesyce celastroides, akoko. Note the cyatheum structure and milky sap at the extreme right in this endemic Hawaiian species.

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