OriginalURL of this page: http://www.inform.umd.edu/PBIO/pb250/spec.html

PBIO 250 Lecture Notes

James L. Reveal

Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland

Specimen Preparation and Herbaria

  • management
    herbarium (-ia)
    herbarium specimen
    plant press
    straps or ropes
    corrugates or corrugate ventilators
    newssheets or newspaper
    field note book for quick notes
    bound field book for final notes
    digging tool
    pruning shears
    hand lens
    pocket knife
    plastic bags
    fixative and vials
    camera and film
    knap or butt pack
    camping equipment
    Holmgren plant drying frames
    two-burner stoves
    field vehicle

  • field books and data
    state, county and exact location
    soil, plant association or community, elevation
    plant features not always observable on the sheet

  • endangered species
    Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended
    United States Forest Service (USFS)
    United States Park Service (NPS)
    Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
    Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
    Convention on International Trade in Threatened and Endangered Species (CITES)
    1. Ayensu, E.S. & R.A. DeFilipps (eds.). 1978. Endangered and threatened plants of the United States. Washington, D.C. - information online
    2. Broome, C.R., J.L. Reveal, A.O. Tucker & N.H. Dill. 1979. Rare and endangered vascular plants of Maryland. Newton Corner. - endangered and threatened plants of the northeastern United States and information on Maryland
    3. Norden, A.W., D.C. Forester & G.H. Fenwick (eds.). 1984. Threatened and endangered plants and animals of Maryland. Maryland Nat. Herit. Prog. Sp. Publ. 84-I: 1-475.
  • Luca Ghini at Pisa, Italy
    1. Herbarium News
    2. Holmgren, P.K., N.H. Holmgren & L.C. Barnett. 1990. Index herbariorum. Part I. The herbaria of the world, ed. 8. Bronx.
    Norton-Brown Herbarium (MARY)
    permanent repositories of plant specimens
      (1) provide a standard reference collection
      (2) training of students in systematics
      (3) documentation of location data
      (4) provide documentation of previous investigations
        (a) type specimens
        (b) voucher specimens
        (c) archives
    herbarium management policy
    Specimen MAnagement System for California Herbaria (SMASH)
    Tracy: An Herbarium Management System
    Collection managers online
    Herbaria online - a listing of herbaria addresses

    herbarium labels
    minimum label data include
      (1) heading
      (2) scientific name and authorship
      (3) locality data
      (4) habitat data
      (5) date of collection
      (6) name of collector(s)
      (7) primary collector's number
    annotation labels
    herbarium sheets: 11.5 x 16.5 inches, 100% rag
    species folders
    genus covers (1 or 2 scored)

  • arrangements
      (1) alphabetical
      (2) Dalla Torre and Harms (1900-1907)
      (3) Bentham and Hooker (1863-1880)
      (4) Cronquist (1981)

  • summary volumes
    1. Allaby, M. (ed.). 1992. The concise Oxford dictionary of botany. Oxford.
    2. Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Rev. ed. New York.
    3. Huxley, A. (ed.) 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 4 vols. London.
    4. Mabberley, D.J. 1987. The plant-book. Cambridge.
    5. Stafleu, F.A. & R.S. Cowan. 1976-1988. Taxonomic literature - II. 7 vols. Utrecht.
    6. -- & E.A. Mennega. 1992-3. Taxonomic literature - Supplement II. 3 vols. to date. Utrecht.
    7. Willis, J.C. 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, 8th ed., revised by H.K. Airy Shaw.
    8. Index kewensis
    9. Gray Herbarium Index
    10. Bolkhovskikh, Z., V. Grif, T. Matvejeva & O. Zakharyena. 1969. Chromosome numbers of flowering plants. Leningrad.
    11. Bridson, G.D.R. & E.R. Smith. 1991. B-P-H Botanico-periodicum-huntianum/supplementum. Pittsburgh.
    12. Farr, E.R., J.A. Leussink & F.A. Stafleu. 1979. Index nominum genericorum. 3 vols. Utrecht.
    13. Goldblatt, P. (ed.). 1981. Index to plant chromosome numbers, 1975-1978.
      Monogr. Syst. Bot. 5: 1-553. [Additional volumes for subsequent years continually published in this series - also online.]
    14. Lawrence, G.H.M., A.F.G. Buchheim, G.S. Daniels & H. Dolezal. 1968. B-P-H Botanico-periodicum-huntianum. Pittsburgh.
    15. Moore, R.J. (ed.). 1973. Index to plant chromosome numbers, 1967-1971. Regnum Veg. 90: 1-539.
    16. --. 1974. Index to plant chromosome numbers, 1972. Regnum Veg. 91: 1-108.
    17. --. 1977. Index to plant chromosome numbers, 1973/1974. Regnum Veg. 96: 1-257.
    18. Terrell, E.E., S.R. Hill, J.H. Wiersema & W.E. Rice. 1986. A checklist of names for 3,000 vascular plants of economic importance. U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 505: 1-241. - available online
  • International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI), formed in 1991, has as its objectives to promote and prepare a series of integrated computerized databases summarizing the basic taxonomic information of all kinds of plants.
    TAXACOM: Taxonomic "chat line"
    Plant Taxonomists Online
    Index to organism names

  • herbaria
    herbarium cases
    compactor units
    dermestid beetles
      (1) heating or freezing
      (2) repellents
      (3) fumigants
      (4) microwave ovens
    paradichlorobenzene (PDB)
    vapona resin strips
    loan and exchange of specimens
    List of herbaria on the WWW
    Arboreta and botanical gardens on the WWW
    Botanical societies and organizations on the WWW
    Systematic servers

  • Next Series of Lecture Notes:
    Methods of Identifying Vascular Plants
    Lecture Schedule

    Last revised: 21 Jan 1999