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Eugene P. ODUM Alumni Foundation Professor of Zoology University of Georgia Athens, Georgia

FUNDAMENTALS OF ECOLOGY

1971 ( Third Edition ) : W. B. Saunders, Comp. Philadelphia London - Toronto

 

Practice has caught up with theory in ecology. The holistic approach and ecosystem theory, as emphasized in the first two editions of this book, are now matters of world-wide concern. People in general have accepted the root meaning of the word "ecology," which refers to the whole environmental "house" in which we live. Thus, to many persons ecology now stands for the study of "the totality of man and environment." Although the same general format which students and teachers found useful in the previous edition has been retained, the third edition is greatly expanded and updated in light of the inereasing importance of the subject in human affairs. All chapters from the second edition have been extensively revised; three completely new chapters have been added to Part 1, and Part 3 has been completely rewritten. Illustrative material and references have been more than doubled, and two-thirds of the figures and tables are new to the third edition.

In revising textbooks one worries about the "dinosaur syndrome." Sometimes textbooks become so enlarged in successive editions that the brevity and simplicity that made them successful in the early editions is lost. To avoid this contingency I have structured the third edition so that it is three books in one, each of which can serve a dif ferent purpose.

Book No. 1. This involves the macroscopic or "big picture" ecology as it relates to human affairs: Chapters 1 through 4, plus 9, 15, 16, and 21. These eight chapters provide a review of ecology for the concerned citizen, the student of the social sciences, the humanities, or the professions (law, medicine, engineering, and so forth), and for the specialist in science, government, or industry. Also this group of chapters provides a reference base for campus-wide courses in "man and environment" or "human ecology."

Book No. 2. For the undergraduate college course in ecology, Part 1 (Chapters 1 through 10) and Chapters 15, 16, and 21 (a total of 13 chapters), with Part 2 and other chapters in Part 3 as reference for specific field or laboratory work, is recommended.

Book No. 3. The whole book (21 chapters) is a comprehensive reference work on principles, environments, and ecological technology. It is also a textbook for graduate courses.

Numerous cross-references in all the chapters make it feasible to begin reading at any point in the book, or to select various combinations of chapters as needed.

As was true in the first two editions, this edition owes much to my brother, Howard T. Odum. His contributions to the second edition, especially to Chapter 3 (Principles and Concepts Pertaining to Energy in Ecological Systems), have been retained and expanded. His highly original approaches to systems ecology, now incorporated in a separate book (see H. T. Odum, 1971), are cited in a number of different chapters. I am also indebted to my son, William E. Odum, for ideas and the use of his unpublished data. Without the understanding and encouragement of my wife, Martha Ann, who also assisted with the illustrations and index, I would never have been able to face the task of revising subject matter that is expanding so rapidly in scope. I am most appreciative of the very great personal encouragement provided through all three editions of this book by Tyler Buchenau, recently retired as College Editor at the W. B. Saunders Company. The staffs of the editorial and production departments of Saunders have been unfailing in their dedication to making this edition a reality despite my many false starts, delays, and changes in manuscript and proof. My thanks go also to Gail McCord, Ann Young, and Joseph Mahoney here at the University of Georgia for their dedicated work on manuscript and proof.

This book is very much a product of concepts and research of students and colleagues who have been associated with the Institute of Ecology at the University of Georgia during the past 25 years. In addition to special chapters and sections, which are credited, the work of Institute members and former students is cited in practically every chapter; their published research makes up an impressive part of the bibliography at the end of the book. It is with great pleasure that I dedicate the third edition to the following staff members (past and present) and former students:

Gary W. Barrett, Robert J. Beyers, Claude E. Boyd, U. Eugene Brady, Joel H. Braswell, Alicja Breymeyer, I. Lchr Brisbin, Paul R. Burkholder, Larry D. Caldwell, James L. Carmon, E. L. Cheatum, Edward Chin, David C. Coleman, Clyde E. Connell, G. Dennis Cooke, William B. Cosgrove, John W. Crenshaw, Jr., William H. Cross, D. A. Crossley, Jr., Rossiter H. Crozier, Armando A. de la Cruz, Michael D. Dahlberg, Howard E. Daugherty, Leslie B. Davenport, Jr., Robert Davis, Michael Dix, Richard Dugdale, Ricliard G. Eagon, Alfred C. Fox, Dirk Frankenberg, John B. Gentry, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Cameron E. Gifford, Frank B. Golley, C. Philip Goodyear, Robert W. Gorden, Robert E. Gordon, Albert G. Green, Jr., Carl W. Helms, David L. Hicks, Kinji Hogetsu, Milton N. Hopkins, Jr., James D. Howard, John H. Hoyt, Melvin T. Huish, Robert L. Humphries, Preston Hunter, Kermit Hutcheson, James H. Jenkins, Robert E. Johannes, A. Stephen Johnson, A. Sydney Johnson, Philip Johnson, David W. Johnston, Marvin P. Kahl, Herbert W. Kale II, Hiroya Kawanabe, Stephen H. King, Edward J. Kucnzlcr, Ceorge H. Lauff, Thomas L. Linton, Jack I. Lowe, Joseph J. Mahoney, Jr., R. Larry Marchinton, Frederick Marland, Timothy G. Marples, James A. Marsh, William H. Mason, Bernard S. Martof, J. Frank McCormick, Wayne McDiffett, John T. McGinnis, Terry A. McGowan, Edward F. Menhinick, Jiro Mishima, Carl D. Monk, Syuiti Mori, Daniel J. Nelson, Robert P. Nicholls, Robert A. Norris, Howard D. Orr, Bernard C. Patten, William J. Payne, George A. Petrides, Gayther L. Plummer, Lawrence R. Pomeroy, Steven E. Pomeroy, Marvin M. Provo, Ernest E. Provost, H. Ronald Pulliam, Robert A. Ragotzkie, Robert J. Reimold, Mervin Reines, David T. Rogers, Jr., Berton Roffman, Lech Ryszkowski, Herbert H. Ross, Masako Satomi, Claire L. Schelske, James E. Schindler, Jay H. Schnell, Donald C. Scott, Homer F. Sharp, L. Roy Shenton, John L. Shibley, Alfred E. Smalley, Michael H. Smith, Allen D. Stovall, Wallace A. Tarpley, John M. Teal, James P. Thomas, Robert L. Todd, Elliot J. Tramer, J. Bruce Wallace, Kenneth L. Webb, Harold E. Welch, William J. Wiebe, Richard G. Wiegert, William K. Willard, Richard B. Williams, John E. Wood, and J. David Yount.

EUGENE P. ODUM

Athens, Georgia

 

CONTENTS

Part 1

BASIC ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION: THE SCOPE OF ECOLOGY

  1. Ecology-Its Relation to Other Sciences and Its Relevance to Human Civilization
  2. The Subdivisions of Ecology.
  3. About Models

Chapter 2

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS PERTAINING TO THE ECOSYSTEM

  1. Concept of the Ecosystem
  2. The Biological Control of the Chemical
  3. Production and Decomposition in
  4. Homeostasis of the Ecosystem

Chapter 3

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS PERTAINING TO ENERGY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

  1. Review of Fundamental Concepts Related to Energy
  2. The Energy Environment
  3. Concept of Productivity
  4. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Trophic Levels
  5. Metabolism and Size of Individuals
  6. Trophic Structure and Ecological Pyramids
  7. Summarization: Ecosystem Energetics

Chapter 4

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS PERTAINING TO BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

  1. Patterns and Basic Types of Biogeochemical Cycles
  2. Quantitative Study of Biogeochemical Cycles
  3. The Sedimentary Cycle .
  4. Cycling of Nonessential Elements
  5. Cycling of Organic Nutrients
  6. Nutrient Cycling in the Tropics
  7. Recycle Pathways
  8. Nutrient Cycling in the Tropics

Chapter 5

PRINCIPLES PERTAINING TO LIMITING FACTORS

  1. Liebig's "Law" of the Minimum
  2. Shelford's "Law" of Tolerance
  3. Combined Concept of Limiting Factors
  4. Conditions of Existence as Regulatory Factors
  5. Brief Review of Physical Factors of Importance as Limiting Factors
  6. Ecological Indicators

Chapter 6

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS PERTAINING TO ORGANIZATION AT THE COMMUNiTY LEVEL

  1. The Biotic Community Concept
  2. Intracommunity Classification, and Concept of Ecological Dominance
  3. Community Analysis
  4. Species Diversity in Commumties
  5. Pattern in Communities
  6. Ecotones and the Concept of Edge Effect
  7. Paleoecology: Community Structure in Past Ages

Chapter 7

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS PERTAINING TO ORGANIZATION AT THE POPULATION LEVEL

  1. Population Group Properties
  2. Population Density and Indices of Relative Abundance
  3. Basic Concepts Regarding Hates
  4. Natality
  5. Mortality
  6. Population Age Distribution
  7. The Intrinsic Rate of Natural Increase
  8. Population Growth Form and Concept of Carrying Capacity
  9. Population Fluctuations.and.So called "Cyclic" Oscillations

Chapter 8

THE SPECIES AND THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE ECOSYSTEM

  1. Concepts of Habitat and Ecological Niche
  2. Ecological Equivalents
  3. Character Displacement: Sympatry,and Allopatry
  4. Natural Selection: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
  5. Artificial Selection: Domestication
  6. Biological Clocks
  7. Basic Behavioral Patterns
  8. Regulatory and Compensatory, Behavior
  9. Social Behavior

Chapter 9

DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION OF THE ECOSYSTEM

  1. The Strategy of Ecosystem Development
  2. Concept of the Climax
  3. Relevance of Ecosystem Development Theory to.Human Ecology ..
  4. Evolution of the,
  5. Coevolution
  6. Group Selection

Chapter 10

SYSTEMS ECOLOGY: THE SYSTEMS APPROACH AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN ECOLOGY

By Carl J. Walters

Introduction

  1. The Nature of Mathematical.Models
  2. The Goals of Model Building
  3. The Anatomy of Mathematical
  4. Basic Mathematical Tools in Model Building
  5. Analysis of Model Properties
  6. Approaches to the Development.of Models

Part 2

THE HABITAT APPROACH

Introduction

Chapter 11

FRESHWATER ECOLOGY

  1. The Freshwater Environment: Types and Limiting
  2. Ecological Classification of Freshwater
  3. The Freshwater Biota (Flora and Fauna
  4. Lentic Communities
  5. Lakes
  6. Ponds
  7. Lotic (Running-Water)
  8. Longitudinal Zonation in Streams
  9. Springs

Chapter 12

MARINE ECOLOGY

  1. The Marine Environment
  2. The Marine Biota
  3. Zonation in the Sea
  4. Quantitative Study of Plankton
  5. Communities of the Marine Environment

Chapter 13

ESTUARINE ECOLOGY

  1. Definition and Types
  2. Biota and Productivity
  3. Food Production Potential
  4. Summary

Chapter 14

TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY

  1. The Terrestrial Environment
  2. The Terrestrial Biota and Biogeographic
  3. General Structure of Terrestrial Communities
  4. The Soil Subsystem
  5. The Vegetation Subsystem
  6. The Permeants of the Terrestrial Environment
  7. Distribution of Major Terrestrial Communities, the Biomes

 

Part 3

APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Chapter 15

RESOURCES.

  1. Conservation of Natural Resources in
  2. Mineral Resources
  3. Agriculture and Forestry
  4. Wildlife Management
  5. Aquaculture
  6. Range Management
  7. Desalination and Weather Modification
  8. Land Use

Chapter 16

POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

  1. The Cost of Pollution
  2. The Kinds of Pollution
  3. The Phases of Waste Treatment
  4. The Strategy of Waste Management and
  5. Monitoring Pollution
  6. Environmental
  7. Some Problem Areas

Chapter 17

RADIATION ECOLOGY

  1. Review of Nuclear Concepts and Terminology of Ecological Importance
  2. Comparative Radiosensitivity
  3. Radiation Effects at the Ecosystem
  4. The Fate of Radionuclides in the Environment
  5. The Fallout Problem
  6. Waste Disposal
  7. Future Radioecological Research

Chapter 18

REMOTE SENSING AS A TOOL FOR STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS

By Philip L. Johnson

  1. Physical Basis for Remote Sensing
  2. Process of Information
  3. Role of Remote Sensing in Ecological Research

Chapter 19

PERSPECTIVES IN MICROBIAL ECOLOGY

By William J. Wiebe

  1. A Brief History
  2. The Question of Numbers
  3. The Question of Recognition
  4. The Question of Performance
  5. The Question of Rate of Function
  6. Summary

Chapter 20

ECOLOGY OF SPACE TRAVEL

By G. Dennis Cooke

  1. Types of Life-Support Systems
  2. Exobiology
  3. Summary

Chapter 21

TOWARD AN APPLIED HUMAN ECOLOGY

  1. Historical Review
  2. The Population Ecology of Man
  3. Components for an Applied Human Ecology

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX WITH REFERENCE GLOSSARY