Review Questions for Algae


1] What are the major differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes regarding Photosynthesis.

2] What are the 3 principal kinds of photosynthetic pigments found in Cyanobacteria?

3] Which regions of the Spectrum are absorbed by Chlorophyll & Carotenoids?

Which kind of Pigment  absorbs Green Light? What special structure contains these latter pigments?

4] What is the function of Heterocysts?

5] How does the presence of Oxygen affect the function of this  [4] process?
ID one Cell Wall adaptation of CB that is related to this.
ID one Physiological Adaptation that is related to this.

6] Is this process [4] significant for Marine Ecosystems?

7] Where do Cyanobacteria typically grow? (Land - Fresh-water - Marine)

8] Do Cyanobacteria have a cell wall that is similar to land plants?

9] Explain the meaning of the term Endolithic. How does this term apply to CB?

10] What is Ooid Sand? [Hint] This is not a Rock Star.

11] Identify some extreme habitats in which CB can be found.

12] Name some important symbiotic partners of CB

13]  Identify Growth Forms commonly encountered for CB

14] Are CB Motile? How might this occur?

15] What is an Akinete?

16] Are Plasmodesmata-like cell interconnections present?

17] Are there any other kinds of cellular interconnections present? If so where are they found?

18] What are Gas Vacuoles and what do they do to the position of CB in the water column?

19] How might CBs inflict damage to aquatic ecosystems?

20] Where can you find CBs on a typical Tropical Coral Reef?
Do they make a significant contribution to reef ecology?

22] Do CBs have true Sexual Reproduction?

23] Do CBs have Apical Cells?


1] How large and diverse is this Division (Low or High)

2] In what region of the world are they most abundant?

Are they significant components of ecosystems in Hawaii?

3] In what kind of water are they most likely to be found (fresh or salt)

4] Are there any unicellular forms? Are there many unicellular species?

5] What is the upper size limit for these organisms (1 cm, 10 cm, 100 cm, 1 m, 10 m, 100 m)

6] Do their cell walls contain Cellulose?

7] What else can be found in great abundance that is part of their cell wall? Hint, one of these components is commonly used in the study of bacteria and other microbes.

8] What else to they sequester within their cell walls which is important for Coral Reef production & stabilization?

9] What is the meaning of the term Geniculate or Articulated?

10] What is the meaning of the term Nongeniculate? Which (Geniculate or nongeniculate is the most important for reef stabilization?

11] Are they prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

12] Do they have true Chloroplasts?
Do they have Grana?
Do they have a Pyrenoid? What are the likely functions of the Pyrenoid.
Where do they store starch?

13] What are the three principal photosynthetic pigments present?

14] Which of these absorbs Green light?

15] What structure contains the latter?

16] What is a Primary Pit Connection?

17] What is a Secondary Pit Connection?

18] Explain the Terms (Uniseriate & Multiseriate)  (Monostromatic & Polystromatic)

19] What is the Conchocelis  Stage of the Porphyra Sexual Life Cycle?  Label the key steps in this life cycle.

PorphyraLifeCycle-3-300UNLab.jpg (70673 bytes)

20] What growth forms are typically found?

21] True or False. Complex red algae are filamentous and don't form true Parenchyma.

22] Make a labeled sketch of a cross section through a complex cylindrical red alga.

Do the same for a complex   laminar (flat) red alga.

In which layer does Photosynthesis occur?

23] Are Apical Cell present in some species?

24] Explain the terms Uniaxial & Multiaxial.

25] Explain the meaning of the term Heterotrichy & make a simple sketch to illustrate this.

26] Do red algae produce Motile Gametes? ... any motile cells?

27] What is the Spermatium? ... Carpogonium?

28] What is the Trichogyne and its function?

29] Label the Boxes in the Life Cycle below [Clearly indicate where Meiosis Occurs].

 wpe2.jpg (36528 bytes)


1] Where are you most likely to find brown algae (fresh water or salt water)?

2] Are there any Unicellular forms?

3] Make labeled sketches of the various growth forms for these organisms.

4] Circle the correct measurement. Brown Algae can be (1, 10, 100, 250, 500, 1000 m) in length

5] What are the principal Photosynthetic pigments of Brown Algae?

6] Which of the above is the pigment that absorbs Green Light?

7] What structural adaptation allows Sargassum to form the Sargasso Sea which is too deep for them to attach to the substrate.

8] What are the three main parts of a complex Brown Alga like Laminaria, Costaria or Nereocystis (Bull Kelp).

9] What kind of meristem allows them to regenerate damaged laminae?



10] Make a sketch of a typical chloroplast which shows the organization of the Thylakoids.wpe4.jpg (20518 bytes)

11]  Make a labeled cross-section through the Stipe of a large alga like Macroscystis or Bull Kelp.

12] What specialized conducting cells are present (above). What two traits do they share with similar cells in land plants?

13] Is Heterotrichy found in this Division? How would you describe species that exhibit this trait (foliose or crustose)?

14] Do any of these have Apical Cells? If so what kind of Branching does this produce?

15] Does this produce True Parenchyma Tissue?

16] Do any species show a Marginal Meristem that produces discoid thalli?

17] What is the Meristodem?

18]  Label the important regions and cell types in the figure to the right.

19] Make a sketch of a cross section through the most complex Lamina and label the 3 most important regions.

20] What is a Float? What is its principal function?

21] Why is the Holdfast Important?

22] Explain the Terms Isogamy, Anisogamy, Oogamy

23] Label the empty boxes in the Life Cycles below

EctocarpusLCUnlab.jpg (153199 bytes)


LamLCUnlab.jpg (182684 bytes)

FucusLCUnlab.jpg (246633 bytes)

24] How do the Terms Isogamy, Anisogamy, Oogamy apply too the above life cycles?

25] Which of the above Sporophytes and gametophytes are Isomorphic or Heteromorphic?

26] In which of the above is the Sporophyte the Dominant generation?

27] In which is the Gametophyte virtually nonexistent?

28] Why did I take this class??????


1] These organisms are most abundant in (fresh or salt) water.

2] The upper limit of their size range is 1 cm, 10 cm, 1m, 5 m 10m, 100m.

3] Their principal photosynthetic pigments are

4] Do they have pigments which absorb well  in the Green region of the spectrum?

5] Do they have Cellulose as a major component of their cell walls?

6] Do any of their species have Grana?VolvoxSexLCUnlab.jpg (124396 bytes)

7] What other structure is usually present in their chloroplasts?

8] Give examples of the various shapes that chloroplasts take in this group.

9] Where do they store starch?

10]  What kinds of Growth Forms are exhibited?

11] What important symbiosis are they part of?

12]  Make a sketch of a Mature Volvox. What two cell types are present?

13] What 2 kinds of Reproduction occur from Generative Cells?

14] Fill in the labeled boxes and explain what is happening in the fig to the right

15] Sketch a cross section of an Ulva thallus.

16]  Fill in the Unlabeled Boxes in the Life Cycles below

UlvaLCUnlab.jpg (218585 bytes)

15] Which of these terms applied to the Ulva & Coleochaete Life Cycles (Heterothallic, Homothallic, Isogamy, Anisogamy, Oogamy).

ColeochaeteLCUnlab.jpg (195522 bytes)

16] What are the similarities between Coleochaete and Simple Land plants like Thallose Liverworts and Hornworts?

17] Make a Labeled sketch of Chara or Nitella.NitellaDrawColor.jpg (30456 bytes)

18] Label the microscopic drawing of Chara. CharaSAMDiagBIODModUNLab400.jpg (157253 bytes)


19] What is the meaning of the term Coenocytic?

20] What common term is used to describe algae that are Coenocytic?

21] Make a sketch of a typical Codium thallus. What kind of branching occurs?

22] What is special regarding the Cell wall of Halimeda? How is it similar to Geniculate Red Algae?

What adaptation allows Halimeda to be stable in habitats with sandy bottoms?

23] Bryopsis & Caulerpa are Coenocytic but have a complex morphology. Make a labeled sketch which shows the structural complexity of Caulerpa or Bryopsis.

24] Label the Codium Life Cycle Below

CodiumLCUnlab.jpg (160779 bytes)

25] Which of these terms apply to the Codium  Life Cycle ( Isogamy, Anisogamy, Oogamy).

26 Which is the dominant Generation (Sporophyte or Gametophyte)?