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Flower Terminology

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Receptacle = Place on stem where floral organs originate & attach

Sepals = Lowest order of floral organs, first to develop, can be green & leaf-like, Collectively = CalyxWaterLilyPurple240.jpg (25542 bytes)

Petals = Inserted on the Receptacle just above the Sepals, usually brightly colored, Collectively = Corolla

Tepals = Sepals & Petals alike in color & shape

Perianth = Collective term for Sepals + Petals

Stamen = Inserted above Petals, consists of Anther & Filament, Collectively = AndroeciumAnthersDaturaLab.jpg (41338 bytes)

Anther - Part of Stamen that Produces Pollen

Filament - Stalk that bears the Anther

Carpel = Inserted above Stamens, uppermost floral organ, Consists of Stigma, Style & Ovary, Collectively = Gynoecium

Stigma - Tip of the carpel, Receptive to Pollen

Ovary - Base of the carpel, contains Ovules

Style - Connects the Stigma to the Ovary

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Clintonia Flowers

Apocarpous   - Flower with Free Carpels

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Flowers are Apocarpus

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Magnolia Flowers are also Apocarpus

Coalescence or Fusion - Fusion or union of floral organs from the same whorl or typeDesignated by Sym or Syn

Syncarpous   - Fused Carpels

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Gynoecium with Carpels Fused at the Base

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The Numerous Stigma Lobes on the Gynoecium of this Poppy indicates that it is Syncarpous

Synandrous - Fused Stamens

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Part of the Androecium from a Erythrina Flower - the Filaments are Fused

Sympetalous - Fused Petals

Synsepalous - Fused Sepals

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The Datura Flower is Synsepalous & Sympetalous

Adnation - Fusion between floral parts of a different kind or whorl

Fusion of Calyx & Corolla

Fusion of Androecium & Corolla

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Datura Flower with Adnation between the Corolla and Androecium

Hypanthium = Fusion of Calyx, Corolla & Filaments of Androecium -> Perigynous Flower

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Perigynous Flower in Rosaceae

Fusion of Hypanthium to Ovary -> Epigynous Flower with Inferior Ovary

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Apple (Purus) Flower with Petals removed

Oh NOOOOOOOOOO More terms!!!!!!!!

Complete   - Has all four floral Organs

Incomplete   - One or more floral organs missing

Perfect - Flower with Androecium & Gynoecium

Imperfect   - Missing Androecium or Gynoecium

Carpellate Flower - Imperfect that has Carpels only

Staminate Flower - Imperfect that has Stamens only

Monoecious (One House) - One plant has BOTH Carpellate & Staminate Flowers

Dioecious (Two Houses)- One plant has only staminate flowers & another plant has only Carpellate Flowers

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Hypogenous   - "Superior Ovary" - Other floral organs attached below the gynoecium on the receptacle.



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Perigynous   - Sepals, Petals & Stamens arise from a tubular extension of the receptacle called the Hypanthium which surrounds the Ovary but is NOT fused to the Ovary Wall.



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Epigynous   - "Inferior Ovary" - Stamens, Petals & Sepals appear to grow from the top of the Ovary




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Actinomorphic   - Face of Flower has Radial Symmetry



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Zygomorphic - Face of Flower has Bilateral Symmetry



Composite - Many individual flowers inserted on a flatened, broad receptacle so that they appear to be one large flower - Sunflower = Prime Example

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Zinnia a Composite

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A Composite which looks like  one Flower Composite split down the middle - Note the many small Flowers attached to the broad Receptacle

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Erigeron - Note the Many Individual Flowers attached to the Receptacle

Erigeron Flowers

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Erigeron - One of my favorite Flowers - I think you can see why!!!!!! So simple but oh so beautiful!!!!

Composites frequently contain two types of Flowers. SunflowerField240.jpg (42393 bytes)

The central flowers are called Disk Flowers. These are actinomorphic.

The peripheral flowers may have irregular corollas (bilateral symmetry)  and resemble rays of the sun. Thus they are called Ray Flowers.

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Glass Model of a Disk Flower- The Spine Like Structures comprise the Calyx and are called the Pappus Glass Model of a Ray Flower

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Lecture Directory