Original URL: http://www.helsinki.fi/kmus/cartogr.html
LINKS FOR BOTANISTS
Florae Europaeae. Overview of the project mapping the
distribution of the vascular plants of Europe, with demo
Florae Europaeae Database. Includes an
evaluation version of a program (Windows95 and NT) for
browsing the distribution of taxa (from family to
subspecific level) treated in AFE 1 - 11.
of Florida Vascular Plants, by the Institute for
Systematic Botany at the University of South Florida has
put available maps showing the country distribution of
vascular plants. The maps are gif images created with
Atlas GIS 3.0 for Windows.
- Atlas of
the Distribution of Vascular Plants in Finland,
overview in Finnish, no online maps yet. The Atlas is
available only as a computer program, and it is based on
the national floristic database of maintained in the
Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History, and
on a detailed, continuous floristic survey started in
1985. The first version was released in 1993, and the
second in 1995. At the moment the Atlas shows the
distribution of 1602 Finnish vascular plants as dot and
frequency maps in 10 km x 10 km grid. - For some other
distribution and coincidence maps of the Finnish vascular
plants, visit the vascular
plants of Finland page, and follow the links from
of the Flora of New England. The web edition of the
Atlas of the Flora of New England will be an ongoing
of Tennessee Vascular Plants
of the Vascular Plants of Utah. This is a digital
version of the Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Utah
authored by Beverly J. Albee, Leila M. Shultz, and Sherel
Goodrich, published by the Utah Museum of Natural
History, 1988. This document consists of maps of the
state of Utah showing collection locations for 2,438
documented plant species. The authors critically examined
approximately 400,000 specimens during a seven year time
span to create this atlas. The maps are in gif format,
the base map shows the topography, regional boundaries
and major lakes and rivers.
van de Flora van Eindhoven, the Netherlands, , text
in Dutch, includes example maps in gif format.
distribution maps of California vascular plants.
Distribution maps of California vascular plants based on
the bioregions cited in The Jepson Manual. Assembled by
the Jepson Herbarium of the University of California,
Botanical Checklist of North America Browser, State Level
Distributions. The Digital Checklist of the Vascular
Flora of North America is a joint project of The Biota of
North America Program of the North Carolina Botanical
Garden and the Museum Informatics Project at the
University of California at Berkeley, in support of the
SMASCH project at the the University Herbarium. Data for
the North American (USA, Canada, Greenland)
"dot-maps" and nomenclatural information are
obtained from the SQL server, and dynamically formatted
as HTML documents for presentation on the World Wide Web.
and WORLDMAP (Natural History Museum, London).
Quantitative measures for mapping biodiversity value,
rarity and endemism, combined with accountable methods
for assessing priority areas for biodiversity
conservation, including gap analysis. The site shows
examples from different spatial scales, including
preliminary maps derived from AFE data for Europe, and a
free downloadable demo of the WORLDMAP software.
Biota of North America Program - World Wide Web
Applications of BONAP Data. Sample flowering plant
family treatments resulting from collaboration with the
Texas A&M Bioinformatics Working Group with indexed
search/mapping systems under development at Texas
A&M: 1) Checklist format - demo families:
Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae). These machine-generated
pages both diversity mapping and range mapping with the
inclusion of ancillary data (Texas checklist), 2)
WWW 'browsing' format - demo families: Chenopodiacae and
Cactaceae) or diversity maps (Chenopodiacae and
Cactaceae), 3) Distribution/Diversity mapping at
the county level: Arkansas
Diversity Mapper. This is an experimental informatics
system under development as a collaborative enterprise
among faculty and students of the University of Arkansas
Herbarium, the Biota of North America Program and the
Texas A&M Bioinformatics Working Group; 4)
Full file indexing of merged data sets using BONAP
nomenclature as a structural framework: the Flora2k
provisoires de distribution des Plantes en Belgique.
An interactive atlas about the distribution of Flora in
Belgium in 4x4 km squares.
provisoires de distribution des Plantes protégées en
Belgique. Distribution maps of the plants protected
of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Cornwall and the
Isles of Scilly - 1994, C.N. French and R.J. Murph,
University of Exeter. Numerous maps created with DMAP.
of Online Vegetation and Plant Distribution Maps. The
list is maintained by Claire Englander (University
Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley) and Phil
Hoehn (Branner Earth Sciences Library and Map
Collections, Stanford University). The list is arranged
by area (world or continent, then subdivided by region or
country name, and when necessary subdivided by smaller
of Arctic Flora and Fauna Maps from UNEP Grid
Arendal, Norway. 11 maps (Jan '97) showing the Arctic
vegetation zones, protected areas, permafrost areas,
bathymetry and topography.
Datenbank Gefäßpflanzen. Erfassung und
Zusammenführung von Verbreitungsdaten für Farn- und
Blütenpflanzen in Deutschland / National database for
mapping the distribution of German vascular plants.
des Plantes supérieures dans la Région
Bruxelles-Capitale. Distribution maps of the vascular
Plants of the Brussels Region, Belgium.
Maps of Vascular Plants in Hokkaido, Japan
Data Project, ERIN, Australia. This project
represents a collaboration of Australian Herbaria and
Conservation Agencies and the Environmental Resources
Information Network. Over 160,000 records of the specimen
locality data of Eucalyptus, Angophora and Corymbia
species in Australia have been collated, loaded and
validated. These records are available for individual
species through interactive query via the World Wide Web.
These records are also available to researchers and
collaborators in the project via this page. It is
possible to plot records of a species obtained from a
particular institution or to download a file of all of
- Flora of
China. Provincial distribution maps of the Chinese
- Flora of Hämeenlinna
(Hämeenlinnan kasvisto). 799 maps showing
the present 1 km x 1 km distribution (Finnish uniform
coordinate system) of all vascular plants of
Hämeenlinna, a town in S Finland. Compiled by Raino
Lampinen (ie., me).
- Flora of North America,
state level distribution maps of North American vascular
plants (and much more).
Mesoamericana: The Internet Version, Missouri
Botanical Garden, USA. Here are example maps which use
the Xerox Parc Map Viewer.
- GIS in
Biogeography Home Page. Mailing list archives.
Atlas of Palaeovegetation
Land Cover Characterization. The U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS), the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL),
and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC)
have generated a 1-km resolution global land cover
characteristics data base for use in a wide range of
environmental research and modeling applications.
Holmiensis. A world index to plant distribution maps.
Founded in 1969 by Hans Tralau (Swedish Museum of Natural
History, Stockholm, Sweden).Index Holmiensis is a
world-covering index to distribution maps of vascular
plants. Scientific publications from all parts of the
world are systematically scanned by an international team
of specialists. The index gives full bibliographic
references to published distribution maps - local,
regional or world-wide - of vascular plant taxa from
family level and below, but mainly at the species level.
International Kuril Island Project (IKIP) collecting data
- INVADERS -
Database of Exotic Plant Names and Distribution
Information. A database of exotic plant
distribution records and regulatory information for the
northwest United States supporting interactive query,
reporting and graphics generation.
der globalen Phytodiversität - BIOMAPS / Biodiversity
Mapping for Protection and Sustainable Use of Natural
Resources. The project at the University of Bonn,
Germany, aims at analyses of the spatial distribution of
phytodiversity at different scales. As a first result a
world map of the species numbers of vascular plants is
presented . Additional analyses include the
interdependence of biodiversity and geodiversity and the
spatial patterns of different qualitative aspects of
biodiversity. A new terminological system for the
diversity of introduced plants is proposed.
Mutual Climatic Range Method (MCR) allows the
quantitative reconstruction of past climates using
- The Nevada
Mountain Atlas (University of Nevada, Reno, USA)
- Orchidées de
Provence, France. Distribution maps, photos and
bibliography of the orchids of Provence, and links to
other orchid sites; maintained by Pierre-Michel Blais.
Fossil Record Maps, IOP
Plants of Hull (Richard Middleton, UK). Commented
distribution maps for all vascular plants of the town.
National Database. Machine generated maps showing the
state distribution of U.S. vascular plants.
Species Lists and Distribution Maps for the Great Basin
from the Biological Resources Research Center, University
of Nevada, Reno, USA.
- South Carolina
Plant Atlas. The purpose of this Atlas is to show, on
a county by county basis, the distribution of all native
and naturalized ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms, and
angiosperms of South Carolina. Approximately 3000
vascular plant species are listed in the Atlas, with a
county dot map for each. Johnny Townsend, Department of
Biological Sciences, Clemson University, USA
Species Mapper of ERIN, Australia. Using this tool,
you can produce maps from the ERIN database, which
contains records of the occurrence of plants and animals
in Australia. These records have been obtained from
Australian herbaria, museums and conservation agencies.
The database contains specimen and survey records of rare
and threatened plants, endangered and vulnerable animals
and major land-cover plants such as Eucalyptus, Acacia
and the Chenopodiaceae. The scientific names for plants
and animals are as defined in the Australian Plant Name
Index [APNI] (last updated January 1995) and the Census
of Australian Vertebrate Species [CAVS] (last updated
- Sveriges växter
- Den virtuella floran ("Virtual Flora of Swedish
Vascular Plants") by Arne Anderberg, Anna-Lena
Anderberg and Mia Ehn Salter, Swedish Museum of Natural
History, Stockholm. Vernacular names in several
languages, morphological decsription, distribution maps
(scanned from Hultén's "Atlas över växternas
utbredning i Norden" and from Hultén, E. &
Fries, M. 1986. Atlas of North European vascular plants:
north of the Tropic of Cancer I-III), economic uses,
etymology of scientific names, images, etc. Text in
- Swiss Federal
Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
in Birmensdorf / Zurich, Switzerland. The WSL is a
multidisciplinary research institute which concentrates
on six main topics: forest ecology, forest utilization,
natural hazards, snow coverage, environmental monitoring
and landscape ecology. The WSL
Landscape Ecology Department sells a CD-ROM with
- Swiss Web
Flora. Data management and analyses: T. Wohlgemuth.
Design: T. Wohlgemuth & P. Longatti. This superb site
gives species distribution maps and species richness
information on the Swiss flora.
Endemic Plants Database. Point and click the map of
Turkey to get lists of endemic plants of each vilayet.
of Michigan Herbarium Web Gis Prototype. Interactive
distribution maps of fungi in the USA.
Plants Endemic to Texas, Texas A&M University
Bioinformatics Working Group in collaboration with The
Flora of Texas Consortium. Machine generated species
distribution and diversity maps.
- The Finnish
Geodetic Institute, its Geodesy Department (and FinnNet,
the national permanent GPS array)
- FUNET: Information
Resource Map of Finland, Coordinate
queries from clickable maps of Finland. Some
Kruununhaka 1:8000 (our museum is in the upper left
quarter of this map), Hämeenlinna
Karttapalvelu. Enter a Finnish street address and get
a map on a www page.
- Geological Survey of Finland.
Here is a short description of the Finnish
cartographic grid and general sheet line system
- Helsinki University of Technology: Cartography
and Geoinformatics, Institute of
University, Department of Geography. Here you can
find, e.g., a description of landforms
of Finland (with maps) by Matti Tikkanen.
- Karttakeskus Oy /
Karttakeskus Ltd. Karttakeskus Ltd is the market
leader in Finnish mapping business.
- Maanmittauslaitos / National Land
Survey of Finland (English page)
- Novo Meridian Oy,
reseller of ArcInfo, and other GIS packages. Meridian Live Internet
- Suomen Kartografinen
Seura - Cartographic Society of Finland. Text in
Finnish and in English.
kaukokartoituskerho / Remote Sensing Club of Finland
The mapping software packages have various utilities for
coordinate conversion; here are links to programs created for
just for the conversion.
Geodesy Pages: Coordinate Transformation -
instructions for conversion of Australian coordinates to
WGS84, also Excel spreadsheets for conversions. AUSLIG
Geodesy Pages: Coordinate calculations, Datums
and Coordinates in Australia. Geodetic
Geographics sells software for coordinate conversion
(Geographic Calculator), GPS tracking, etc. The demo versions
are available from their website.
- Bureau of Land
Management ftp server (USA), GIS directory. Plenty of
useful GIS utilities - see the file 000-index. Several
coordinate conversions programs (for instance in packages
Some programs with source code.
Conversion (GCTP), USGS General Cartographic
Transformation Package (Map projection Software).
Datums and Transformations. Annotated links to web
sites, maintained by Bob Burtch.
- National Imagery and Mapping Agency's
NIMAMUSE: NIMA MC&G
Utility Software Environment,
Version 2.1. NIMAMUSE is a self-contained set of computer
programs and computer utilities designed to work with
NIMA MC&G data and information. NIMAMUSE is designed
to be loaded on to and run from several popular
computers: IBM PCs running Windows, Sun, Hewlett-Packard
and Silicon Graphics.- The package includes Datum
Transformation and Coordinate Conversion (DT&CC4),
which allows the user to perform datum transformation,
coordinate conversion, or combined datum transformation
and coordinate conversion, and is the standard for
validation of coordinate handling in defense software
systems, see Nimamuse
2.1 Documentation Pages.
GIS Tools. The Environmental Resources Information
Network has made online form which can be used in
lat/long geo conversion in Australia.
- FORTRAN -
f77 Subroutine for Lat/Lon to UTM Conversion
Calculations by Bernd Scherer, Munich, Germany. WWW
forms for various conversions.
Circle Distance Calculator. This system computes the
flight distance between any two points on the earth. This
is called the great circle distance. Inputs to the system
are the latitudes and longitudes (input through a variety
of different methods) of two points, and an indication of
whether the distance should be returned as statute miles,
nautical miles, or kilometers.
Circle Route Drawing Program
- Geographic to Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM),
Geodetic Survey of Canada Online Applications. Coordinate
conversion online in a WWW browser. Geodetic
Software and Related Data Products guide.
- John Banta's
Coordinate Transform Page . The SeisSoft Company
sells several programs for coordinate conversion, and
evaluation versions are available via their website:
- SeisSoft Multiple Regression Transform.
Shareware program that converts Lat/Long between
- SeisSoft Molodensky Transform. Shareware
program ($20 - $25) that converts Lat/Long/Height
values between various datums.
- Coordinate File Conversion. Lat/Lon
<=> X/Y, Datum to Datum File Conversion
- Coordinate Transform. Lat/Lon to X/Y
conversion program ($20 - $25).
-ohjelma (Win 3.1 & NT).
For converting and transforming the Danish coordinates;
the program can be ordered from Kort &
des bkg. Online Koordinatentrafo des bkg ( IFAG) für
ED50 - WGS84 und DHDN - WGS84.
Auf einer anderen Seite stehen noch einige weitere Programme
zum downloaden. Hierbei ist besonders das
Programm der DMA hervorzuheben (madtran.exe), das
sämtliche Parameter enthält, die
auch im Technical Report zum WGS84 enthalten sind.
Datum Transformation Software Program (MADTRAN).
MADTRAN-edition 4.1 is a free program for datum
transformation and coordinate conversions. A directory of
internally documented source code is included for system
developer use. The program allows input from geodetic,
UTM, or the Military Grid Reference System coordinates.
Over 100 datums are available for transformation to or
from WGS 84. Output is automatically presented as
geodetic, UTM, and Military Grid Reference System
coordinates. Geodetic coordinates can be computed in
degrees, minutes, and/or seconds. Source code included.
Projection Software page of Karen Mulcahy - reviews
and links of several conversion programs.
National Geodetic Survey (NOAA/NGS) PC Software List,
many free conversion programs, such as
(Version 20). Performs field check
computations, such as tape standardization,
eccentric reduction, datum transformation,
triangle (plane, spherical, geodetic), special
(three-point fix, intersection, resection),
geodetic (traverse, inverse, direct)
computations, solar observation for azimuth, and
State plane coordinate system computations on the
NAD 27 and NAD 83 datums.
(Version 2.0). Converts NAD 27 State plane
coordinates to NAD 27 geographic positions
(latitudes and longitudes) and conversely.
Includes defining constants for all NAD 27 plane
(Version 2.1). Transforms geographic
coordinates between the NAD 27, Old Hawaiian,
Puerto Rico, or Alaska Island datums and NAD 83
values. Recommended for converting coordinate
data for mapping, low-accuracy surveying, or
(Version 2.0). Converts NAD 83 state plane
coordinates to NAD 83 geographic positions and
conversely. Includes defining constants for NAD
83 coordinate zones. State plane coordinates are
entered or computed to 1 mm accuracy, while the
latitudes and longitudes entered or computed
correspond to approximately 0.3 mm accuracy.
(Version 1.1). Converts geographic
coordinates (latitudes and longitudes) on the
Clarke 1866, GRS 80/WGS 84, International, WGS
72, or any user-defined reference ellipsoid to
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates,
is a standard Unix filter function which converts
geographic longitude and latitude coordinates into
cartesian coordinates, (lambda,phi) -> (x,y), by means
of a wide variety of cartographic projection functions.
For many of the projection functions the inverse
conversion, (x,y) -> (lambda,phi), can also be
performed. The Unix version of the software (buildable
with gcc) is located in ftp://kai.er.usgs.gov/pub/PROJ.4,
and this plus a PC-DOS version of the software (both
executable & source) may also be downloaded via http.
This software supports a very robust set of coordinate
projection systems, datums, and ellipsoids. This software
is especially useful if you have to convert large batches
v. 2.3 by Mark van Veen (On Page: Checklist
of Software for Field Biologists). Map coordinates
conversion utility for the BENELUX countries. Converts
between numeric UTM coordinates, UTM codes, matrix
numbers, spherical coordinates and Amersfoort
coordinates. Furthermore, you can give place names and
get their coordinates. Public domain, and source code
van RD-coördinaten en geografische coördinaten.
Online conversion of the co-ordinates used in the
Mercator Calculator (Alan Morton, UK). A facility for
converting latitude/longitude co-ordinates to
co-ordinates in metres on a Transverse Mercator
converts latitude/longitude co-ordinates into metric
co-ordinates of the British, Finnish, Irish, Italian and
Swedish national coordinate systems, and to UTM
coordinate conversions , Edwards Air Force Base.
Converts coordinates in a WWW form.
- UTM is a program made by Larry Huldén for
converting the Finnish national uniform coordinates (KKJ3
zone) into the grid used in Atlas Florae Europaeae. UTMWorld
and UTMFinland are free coordinate conversion
programs made by Peter Bostock, Queensland Herbarium,
Australia. UTMWorld converts lat/long coordinates to
WGS84 coordinates (and vice versa), UTMFinland converts
the Finnish national coordinates (lat/long or metric) to
WGS84 (and vice versa). They are available via the ftp
server of the
Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History.
- Read the index.txt file of the ftp server.
A free Windows program by Laurens Sparrius, Leiden
University, the Netherlands. Conversion program for the
Dutch coordinates (prompts in Dutch; "Een programma
om kilometerhokken naar amersfoortcoordinaten om te
rekenen bestaat nog niet dus heb ik zelf maar eentje
FTP server,Victor Fraenckel's coordinate calculation
programs, see the programs.txt file for details. The
DOS programs available as zip files include:
- RULE2LL: computes the latitude and
longitude of a point on a map given the easting
and northing offsets from the lower left corner
of the map. The measurements may be entered in
inches or millimeters.
- LL2RULE: given a latitude and longitude
of a point on a map LL2RULE will compute the
easting and northing of the point referenced to
the lower left hand corner of the map. Input and
output formats as well as map scale, map
reference ellipsoid and corner latitude/longitude
are user selectable.
- LL2UTM: given the latitude and longitude
of a point LL2UTM will compute the UTM
coordinates and zone of that point.
- UTM2LL: given the UTM grid coordinates
of a point on the earth's surface, UTM2LL will
compute the latitude and longitude of that point.
The user may select output display format and may
select a map datum or an ellipsoid to be used for
the conversion. The user must supply an
appropriate UTM Zone number and Zone letter.
- DIRECT: given the latitude and longitude
of a point on the earth's surface and the
distance and azimuth to a second point, DIRECT
will compute the latitude and longitude of the
second point and the azimuth of the first point
from the second.
- INVERSE: given the latitude and
longitude of two point on the earth's surface,
INVERSE will compute the distance between the two
points and the azimuth of each from the other.
<=> KKJ conversion program. WGS84
<=> KKJ conversion program. A free DOS, Alpha/VMS,
VAX/VMS, Win3.x or Windows NT program for converting the
coordinates of the Finnish national coordinate system
(KKJ) to WGS84 and vice versa - available from the
Finnish National Land Survey. Prompts and user guide in
Finnish; some of the conversion equations are given on
the web page.
-- Coordinate and Datum Transformation Software
- Wis On Net,
Belgium. Online Java applets for coordinate conversions
between WGS84, ED50, French and Belgian coordinate
systems, and more.
Map Grid (AMG) and Geocentric
Datum of Australia (GDA) from
the Australian Surveying & Land Information
of Map Projections, version edited by John P. Snyder
and Harry Steward - available as a zip file.
- DMA (US Defence Mapping Agency) / NIMA (National
Imagery and Mapping Agency)
- European Reference Frame 1989 (EUREF89) and WGS84
Datums and Transformation Links by Bob Burtch.
Systems used in Estonia. Describes L-EST'92,
TMBaltic'93, Pulkovo'42 and Pulkovo'63.
directory of the Hungarian Geodetic Reference.
Description of the EOV projection system, HD-72 datum and
reference system, transformation of EOV coordinates to
HD-72 datum, transformation parameters from HD-72 datum
to global Ones, differences between the altitude
references, other reference system and projections used
in Hungary, formulas for computation from IUGG GRS 1967
ellipsoid to EOV projection and from EOV projection to
IUGG GRS 1967 ellipsoid, etc.
and Datum Planes. An overview by the Office of Mines
and Minerals GIS Lab, Illinois Department of Natural
Resources. Here is also a list of 121
Geodetic Datum Planes, originally compiled by Peter
H. Dana at the Department of Geography at the University
of Texas at Austin. This list gives the shift parameters
- EPSG / POSC: The
European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) Geodesy Parameters.
The European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) has compiled
and is distributing this set of parameters defining
various geodetic and cartographic coordinate systems to
encourage standardisation across the Exploration and
Production segment of the oil industry. The data is
included as reference data in the GeoTIFF data exchange
specification, in Iris21 (the Petroconsultants data
model), and in Epicentre (the POSC data model).
Parameters map directly to the POSC Epicentre model v2.1,
except for data item codes which are included in the
files for GeoTIFF and data management purposes. The data
is available in a relational database, MS Access (v2), as
MS Excel tables and as csv files. -- POSC
Datum Information Page. -- Coordinate
Systems (Section 3) with Projections
and Projected Coordinate Systems Formulas (Section 3.4)
Logical Data Model (Usage
Guide) -- POSC
Specifications Epicentre Version 2.2 - Petrotechnical
Open Software Corporation
- Les Projections Françaises - ESRI France (Support FAQ)
Handbook 1996 - Manuel du geodesien Internet version
Anwendungen in Java, Auswahl. Numerous Java applets
by Bernd Scherer. For instance UTM
REF (for converting metric UTM coordinates to
for determining UTM references, UTM zone locations and
central meridians, US National Register Bulletin 16A,
published in 1991.
(a US company) guide on map projections
- Germany -
Topowin/Topo - Topographisches Informationssystem
- How to Read
the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid by N.G.
Mulcahy's Map Projection Home Page, Hunter College,
USA. One of the subjects here is Map
- The collection for map projections and reference
systems by Stefan Voser, Institute
for Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive
Agriculture, University of Vechta, Germany. -- European
Geodetic Reference Systems /// European
- Mathematical data for bibliographic
descriptions, Jan Smits
- POSC Epicentre Usage Guide: Coordinate Systems
- The spheroid and coordinate systems and Map Projections and Plane Coordinates. Both of the long pages are lecture notes,
Civil Engineering Department, State University of New
York at Buffalo.
of Texas at Austin, Department of Geography. Here you
can find Peter H. Dana's superb articles, including, for
The mapping software packages include datasets for base maps,
and they often can be converted to formats which can be used in
other programs. Here are some links to some of the sites which
have made free coordinate files available (there are many more
such sites, especially in USA):
Online allows you to browse a wide variety of
geographic data to create maps of your areas of interest.
You can access basemap data to create traditional
maps of geographic features such as political boundaries,
roads, and place names. As an alternative, you can access
thematic data to create atlas maps of information
about the earth including its people, nations, and
- Baltic Sea Region Statistical Database on Sustainable
development, natural resources and environment is a
compilation of statistics dealing with the Baltic Sea
region. Most of the statistics are on a national level,
related to most of the countries fully or partly within
the Baltic Sea drainage basin; Belarus, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland,
Russia, Sweden and Ukraine. - Digital boundary data for
the countries is available in MapInfo export format
- China In Time
And Space (CITAS). China in Time and Space (CITAS) is
a project to create and maintain databases of spatially-
and temporally-referenced data on China. CITAS aims to
provide access to a wealth of contemporary and historical
information on China at minimal cost to scholars and
other non-commercial users. The project utilizes
state-of-the-art geographic information system (GIS)
technology to integrate tabular and vectorized map data.
An unusual aspect of CITAS is its emphasis on the
temporal dimension: one project goal is the capability of
reconstructing Chinese administrative geography for
specific historical dates, and the ability to compare
spatial data at two points in time, whether over years or
over centuries. Collaboration with Chinese scholars and
organizations is integral to the project goals.
Extractor of the USGS Woods Hole Field
Center. Freely available datasets containing world
coastlines and lakes, international and internal
political boundaries and rivers. - Description of the World
Vector Shoreline (WVS) dataset (from NIMA).
Chart of the World Data Server, The Pennsylvania State University Libraries. This
web site will allow you to download the boundaries and
layers of individual countries, in Arc/INFO export
format, from ESRI's Digital Chart of the World data set.
boundary files for Finland. Free boundary files for
Alan Morton's DMAP distribution mapping program. Boundary
files for Finland are available via the ftp server of the
Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History (read
the descriptions in the index.txt file).
ArcData Online. ArcData Online is ESRI's Internet
Mapping and Data Site. The ADOL site contains a wide
assortment of geographic information that users can
access to create map images and download data.
Data Hound Service. A service that catalogs and
searches web sites that offer freely downloadable data
compatible with ESRI software.
Information Systems in Sustainable Development
prepared by the Geographic Information Systems Group
Environment and Natural Resources Service (SDRN) FAO
Research, Extension and Training Division. - This
document has links to sites with free datasets.
GIS Data Depot. Free dataset and software depository.
The GIS Data Depot houses data in support of the GIS
industry. The majority of the data provided by the GIS
Data Depotähas been downloaded by their staff from a
wide range of GIS Web sites located on the Internet.
There is also value added data where the GIS Data Depot
staff has performed some translation, attribution,
analysis, or other data enhancing operation. The majority
of datasets in the GIS Data Depotä are in ARC/INFO E00,
SHP, DLG, TIGER & DEM.
Online GIS and Map and Graphics Database. These
dataset are produced using ARC/INFO (for both PC
and Unix), ARC/VIEW and IDRISI software.
world coastline data (as a compressed file,
coast.zip) from the Bureau of Land Management, USA.
Online Free GIS Data Products. US datasets in for
ArcInfo, MapInfo and more.
Medium Resolution Digital Vector Shoreline
- On-line Baltic Sea
Drainage Basin GIS, Map and Statistical Database,
Here is a geocoded points file containing over 13,000
world places with attributes, US zip codes data as well
as several datasets covering British Columbia.
USGS collection of public-domain software developed
by or for the USGS, including cartographic, map
production and revision, geospatial metadata, and mapping
products access applications. USGS
Geodata is also available via ftp.
DLG. 1:100,000-scale coverage of the United States
GeoData Available Through the Internet
- Xerox Webster
Research Center ftp server. USGS Digital Elevation
Model files, USGS Digital Line Graph files, geographic
names, land use information, US Bureau of Census street
maps from 1990, US Bureau of Census street maps, etc.
Using these services you can enter a place name and see the
results in your WWW browser either as a map or as coordinate
Geographic Place Names . Operated by the Australian
Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories.
Columbia Geographical Names Information System. The
Geographic Data BC branch of the British Columbia
Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MELP) presents
this world wide web (WWW) forms-based interface to let
you query the database of the BC Geographical Names
Information System (BCGNIS).
geographical names - Natural Resources Canada
Karttapalvelu. Locate an address on a map ! (in
Names Server - National Imagery and Mapping Agency, USA.
The GEOnet Names Server (GNS) provides access to the
National Imagery and Mapping Agency's (NIMA) database of
foreign geographic feature names. Approximately 12,000 of
the databases 3.3 million features are updated monthly
with names information approved by the U.S. Board on
Geographic Names (US BGN). Information in this database
has been used to prepare and publish the series of
foreign country gazetteers approved by US BGN.
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. The TGN
comprises records for approximately 900,000 places.
index to communes (towns/villages) of France
Finnish National Land Survey. Search the place names (c.
30,000) from the Finnish 1:400,000 maps and get the
results as map on the screen. You first have to register
as the user of this service (but the registration is
free, unless you want to see the 1:20,000 or more
detailed maps for the whole of Finland).
gazetteer of villages and towns
UK Place Names and Maps
Zealand Geographic Place-Names Database
Names in the Netherlands
- PlaceNames Web
Server. Gazetteers, place name lists, town and city
indices from all around the world.
- Ordnance Survey (UK) -
National Street Gazetteer
Gazetteers for central and eastern Europe, including
- Slovakian Place
- The UK Street Map
Page. This site provides address searching and street
map facilities for the UK; currently there are street
maps for Greater London and road atlas maps for the whole
of the UK.
Gazetteer - U.S. Census Bureau, U.S.
Gazetteer Place and Zipcode Files
Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). USGS
National Mapping Program Geographic Names Information
System (online database query).
GIS Dictionary, University of Edinburgh. The
dictionary includes definitions for 980 terms (as of
January 1997) compiled from a variety of sources which
either relate directly to GIS or which GIS users may come
across in the course of their work. The dictionary is
also supplemented by 52 diagrams.
- The Atlas
of Europe (EUROATLAS) is the graphic core of the Cartographic
Information System on European Affairs
Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata. Federal
Geographic Data Committee. 1994. Content standards for
digital spatial metadata (June 8 draft). Federal
Geographic Data Committee. Washington, D.C. This standard
specifies the information content of metadata for a set
of digital geospatial data. The purpose of the standard
is to provide a common set of terminology and definitions
for concepts related to these metadata. Metadata are data
about the content, quality, condition, and other
characteristics of data.
Digital Chart of the World (DCW) & Data Quality
Project, UNEP Grid Arendal, Norway. Also links to
other DCW online resources.
GIS Notebook by Bill Thoen.
Information Standards, The Open Information
Interchange WWW site, Luxembourg.
Geographic Information for Europe
GIS FAQ. This is the index of frequently asked
questions (FAQ) about Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) along with answers to these questions. The FAQ is a
resource of the comp.infosystems.gis newsgroup which is
connected to the GIS-L mailing list.
- GIS in the
Internet, Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie
Master Bibliography Project , an initiative
undertaken by professor Duane Marble of Ohio State
University to create a comprehensive bibliography of GIS
related research and literature.
- * GIS
Utilities via ftp from the Bureau of Land Management, USA
- GISNET BBS WWW Home
Page / Thoen's Web. "GISnet BBS is an electronic
bulletin board system (BBS) that provides on-line
resources for everyone interested in Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) and Mapping. Our interests
include GIS, digital cartography, desktop mapping, remote
sensing, weather, and other earth science fields. We have
the largest and best collect shareware on the planet for
these subjects. We also have many map data sets, digital
maps, and information on spatial data formats, and even
source code online. If we don't have it, we have the
online resources to help you find it."
- MetaData and
WWW Mapping Home Page, Sol Katz, Bureau of Land
Topographic Data Base (NTDB) Glossary, Canada
- The National Center for Geographic Information Analysis (NCGIA) is a
research consortium whose main focus is to conduct basic
research in geographic information science and its
related technology. There are three sites in the
of California at Santa Barbara, State University of
New York at Buffalo, and the University of Maine.
NCGIA Core Curriculum literature provides
fundamental course content assistance for educators as
Information Systems (GIS)
- CIESIN, Consortium
for International Earth Science Information Network,
was established in 1989 as a non-profit, non-governmental
organization to provide information that would help
scientists, decision-makers, and the public better
understand their changing world. CIESIN specializes in
global and regional network development, science data
management, decision support, and training, education and
technical consultation services.
GeoTIFF Web Page. GeoTIFF represents an effort by
over 160 different remote sensing, GIS, cartographic, and
surveying related companies and organizations to
establish a TIFF based interchange format for
georeferenced raster imagery. GeoTIFF
Format Specification - GeoTIFF Revision 1.0
Sciences & Map Library, University of California
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Server Home Page
the European Umbrella Organisation for Geographic
Information, the Netherlands aims to promote,
stimulate, encourage and support the development and use
of Geographic Information and Technology at the European
level and to represent the common interest of the
Geographic Information community in Europe.
Association of Geodesy
Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU) at the University of
- International Map
Trade Association. Specialty map retailers, links to
publishers and retailers on the web, and information on
maps, geography, and mapping technology.
- IUGG International
Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
geomatic Info Site (I.G.I.S.)
Home Page, France. MEGRIN helps you build European
mapping applications by providing information and digital
map data from the National Mapping Agencies. MEGRIN is an
organization owned by 19 National Mapping Agencies (NMAs)
which aims to meet the needs of the pan-European digital
map data market. - GDDD -
Geographical Data Description Directory helps you to
find the European digital geographic information which
you need. More than 36 National Mapping Agencies (NMAs)
have described their own datasets. - SABE
(Seamless Administrative Boundaries of Europe)
dataset contains low level (NUTS5 or its equivalent)
administrative units for 25 countries. - PETIT
(Pathfinder towards the European Topographic Information
Template) which is in the early stages of creating a
pan-European 1:250,000 scale topographic dataset.
- National Geodetic
- The National Imagery and
Mapping Agency, USA (Defense Mapping Agency has been
incorporated into this institute).
- United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP): Grid Arendal, Norway - Catalogue of
available datasets - Nordic/Baltic
Datasets - GIS
Baltic Sea Drainage Basin Database, Customised Maps -
CyberMaps and CyberRouter. Enter a ZIP Code or a
placename to generate a Street Atlas USA® map, or enter
starting and destination points in the form below, and
click "Go!" to receive a Map'n'Go® travel
Map, Australia. This service, developed by Tony
Steinke, Charles Sturt University, plots a map on your
screen according to the parameters that you fill in the
Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 0 in 3D A JAVA
application, which models DTED tiles in 3D. After
selecting a 1 degree tile, you will have the option to
view the terrain before downloading the data. From the
National Imagery and Mapping Agency, USA. -- Digital
Terrain Elevation Data (DTED®) Level 0 30 Arc Second
- Eesti Atlas
Geographic Information System of Iceland
is a World Wide Web interface to a geographic information
system (GIS), offering public access to mapped
information. GRASSLinks provides GIS display and analysis
tools to facilitate data sharing and cooperation between
environmental planning agencies, public action groups,
citizens, and private entities.
a map with NAISMap. With NAISMap, you can view and
manipulate National Atlas spatial data layers and
construct your own map of Canada.
Interactive Atlas (for finding places), TripQuest
(door-to-door driving directions within the continental
U.S.), Personalized Mapping, Map Shortcuts (allowing you
to jump directly to a specific map by selecting a city or
country name from a list), etc.
- Route Map of
Map Service, USA. U.S maps generated on-the-fly
according to the parameters that the user gives in a www
EDC Global Land Information System (GLIS). The Global
Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer
system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for
scientists seeking sources of information about the
Earth's land surfaces. GLIS contains metadata that is,
descriptive information about data sets. Through GLIS,
scientists can evaluate data sets, determine their
availability, and place online requests for products.
GLIS is more than a mere list of products. It offers
online samples of earth science data that may be ordered
through the system.
- Xerox Parc Map
Viewer. The Xerox PARC Map Viewer is a World-Wide Web
HTTP server that accepts requests for a World or USA map
and returns an HTML document including an image of the
requested map. Each map image is created on demand from a
- Yahoo Maps and
Just a small selection:
- AGIS for
FREE Internet data viewer
Botanical Garden Mapping System. You will find
information here on computerized mapping of plant
collections typically housed at facilities such as
botanical gardens, arboreta, zoos, and large private
estates. The focus is BG-Map, the computer mapping
system/GIS designed specifically to meet the unique needs
of botanical gardens and arboreta.
and WORLDMAP (Natural History Museum, London).
Quantitative measures for mapping biodiversity value,
rarity and endemism, combined with accountable methods
for assessing priority areas for biodiversity
conservation, including gap analysis. The site shows
examples from different spatial scales, including
preliminary maps derived from AFE data for Europe, and a
free downloadable demo of the WORLDMAP software.
Fauna-Flora Home Page, Belgium. CFF is software to
represent animals and/or plant distributions. An
evaluation version can be downloaded from the CFF website
(the program costs 130 USD).
AB is a Swedish company which develops and sells
software for management, analysis and presentation of
geographic information. A demo version of the
Data-on-the-Map 3.0 is available here, as well as some
vector maps for the program.
- Direct Line
Distance Server. This online service uses the
University of Michigan Geographic Name Server and a
supplementary database of world cities to find the
latitude and longitude of two places, and then calculates
the distance between them (as the crow flies). It also
provides a map showing the two places, using the Xerox
PARC Map Server.
Distribution mapping program created by Dr. Alan Morton,
UK. DMAP Distribution Maps or Coincidence Maps based on
data files containing the digitized features of the areas
to be mapped and also the distribution data for the
species to be mapped. The data files can contain
co-ordinates as Grid References (kilometres and metres)
or as Latitude+Longitude (degrees and minutes). DMAP can
be used as a 'stand-alone' mapping package or can be
linked to a general database or biological recording
package which generates some or all of the required data
Info, Epi Map and SSS1. Free software and most of the
boundary files are free.
- ER Mapper Home Page,
Australia. Free evaluation CD-ROM available.
- ESRI Home Page,
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. - ArcView
- FLORIN Information
System Home Page, Russia. FLORIN is an information
system designed to deal with a wide range of data about
plants: taxonomy and nomenclature, geographic
distribution, herbarium and living collections, detailed
information about plants collected in the wild,
bibliographic data, etc
Explorer. Blue Marble Geographic's FREE geographic
viewer for Windows 9x and NT.
- GMT -
Generic Mapping Tools software source. This
public-domain software generates PostScript images, see
also samples at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/soest/about.ftp.html.
- GIS in the
Internet, Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie
Karlsruhe, Germany. Go to the "Software" pages
with detailed descriptions of GIS programs.
and GIP Software Listing by Vinton Valentine,
University of Delaware. Detailed descriptions on the
software packages, also pricing information.
Geographic Resources Analysis Support System
Browser. Fortner Software's FREE HDF Viewer.
- Idrisi Project Home
Page, USA. Founded in 1987 by Geography Professor Ron
Eastman, the IDRISI Project is a non-profit project
within the Graduate School of Geography at Clark
University. The mandate of the Project is to further the
development and understanding of computer-assisted
geographic analysis. The raster-based geographic analysis
packages IDRISI and IDRISI for Windows are developed,
distributed and supported by the Project. - IDRISI
Resource Center Salzburg, Austria
by Informatik Inc.
- Map Maker,
a GIS software package free for students, academics,
non-governmental not-for-profit organisations, and
governmental organisations in Africa, Asia, Latin
America, and Eastern Europe. Map Maker Pro is the
commercial version with advanced features.
a freeware Windows program from the National Geophysical
Data Center (NGDC), NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, USA;
with dozens of basemaps from different parts of the
MapViewer is a thematic mapping package that creates
full-color maps by linking worksheet data to areas or
points on a map. MapViewer includes numerous boundaries
and data files for the United States and World to get you
started, and you can create your own boundaries for use
with MapViewer. The program is a product of the Golden Software, Inc.,
USA. Demo versions of MapViewer and other programs are
available via ftp.
is a microcomputer-based program designed for use in the
instruction of computer assisted cartography and for the
production of small-scale thematic maps. MicroCAM is
public domain and may be spread throughout the land. The
AAG charges for the diskettes involved and the extended
user's manual written by others. MicroCAM for Windows
(Version 1.3) or DOS (Version 4.0) is available for
download via anonymous ftp at the United States Military
- Microimages, Inc., is
the vendor of TNTmips. TNTmips is a professional system
for fully integrated GIS, image processing CAD, TIN,
desktop cartography and geospatial database management.
Among its many applications, TNTmips is used to prepare a
wide variety of materials for use and distribution with
other TNT products. TNTlite is the free version of the
professional TNTmips and TNTview products (you can
download this 100 Mb program from the WWW site, or order
it on CD-ROM).
MapPoint 2000 information at Directions Magazine, Microsoft
MaPPoint 2000 /Microsoft web server)
National Imagery and Mapping Agency's NIMAMUSETM* : NIMA
MC&G Utility Software Environment, Version 2.1.
NIMAMUSETM is a self-contained set of computer programs
and computer utilities designed to work with NIMA
MC&G data and information. NIMAMUSETM is designed to
be loaded on to and run from several popular computers:
IBM PCs running Windows, Sun, Hewlett-Packard and Silicon
Graphics operating systems.
v. 1.8b. OmniMap is a stand-alone IBM compatible DOS
program written to:(1) speed up the recording of research
specimen data; (2) help the checking of research specimen
data for accuracy; (3) produce specimen databases
suitable for use in GIS type software; (4) and to help
the analysis of systematics research data. Available via
the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee FTP server; read
the explain file.
- RAMAS, Ecological and
Environmental Software by Applied Biomathematics. RAMAS
is a software library for building ecological models.
RAMAS programs incorporate species-specific data to
predict the future changes in the population and assess
the risk of population extinction or explosion and
chances of recovery from a disturbance. RAMAS/GIS is
designed to link your GIS with a metapopulation model for
population viability analysis and extinction risk
- Rockware Inc.
Earth Science Software. Demos and free software
for Windows by the Golden Software, Inc. Surfer is a
contouring and 3D surface plotting program that runs
under Microsoft Windows.
Software. Links to free GPS, GIS, mapping and
- Versamap for Windows
- Draws outline maps on many map projections. Print
publication quality maps, or export maps in vector
graphic (WMF, CGM, DXF, ASCII) and bitmapped (BMP)
formats. Text may be added to maps using any Windows
font. Plot your own data in a simple ASCII format.
UK, specializes in the development and use of
visualization software, with particularly emphasis on
landscape visualization and its use in GIS, maps,
geography, geology, multimedia, education and outdoor
pursuits. Landscape Explorer (the program can
capture information from a scanned image or import data
from another application; after transformation into a 3D
model the landscape can be viewed from any direction) and
MapMarker (utility for extracting contour
information from scanned map images) are free.
The CGRER list (link below) is so that there is no sense to
put many links here.
- American Digital
Cartography Inc. The ADC Desktop Mapping Division
produces a family of digital atlas products, named ADC
WorldMap, for use with MapInfo software. Source data
includes the Digital Chart of the World (DCW) produced by
the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). These products
provide an intermediate scale base map of large areas to
be used for mining and exploration, strategic planning,
telecommunications and broadcast analysis, demographic
studies, trade area analysis, site selection, and mapping
for presentation and reporting.
Gittings' Digital Elevation Data Catalogue
Images Home Page. Images and descriptions of ancient
maps dating from 6000 BC to 400 AD; early and late
medieval maps from 400 AD to 13500 AD; and renaissance
maps from 1500 to 1700. A terrific selection of
cartographic images along with detailed information and
other interesting links.
Landform Atlas of the United States. Currently two
types of maps are available for each state (except Alaska
and Hawaii): 1) a topographic map optimized to show the
landforms. The same color shading is used across the
country, 2) a map showing counties in a state. The
background topography has been somewhat suppressed to
allow the county boundaries to show well.
Maps and References, USA. List of the Center for
Global & Regional Environmental Research, University
of Iowa. A very long list of links to places where to
- Digital Chart of the World. The DCW is a
1700 megabyte data base of vector geographic information.
It provides global coverage of topographic information
equivalent in detail to a 1:1,000,000 scale map. - Digital
Chart of the World on CD-ROM, description from ESRI.
- East View Publications
sells Russian topographic and digital maps.
- Europa Technologies
has a product Global Insight proct line.
- Florida Maps.
Florida GIS maps on CD, ArcView and Arc/Info format.
Climate Maps. Produced by SD-Dimensions and the
Agrometeorology Group of FAO's Sustainable Development
Great Globe Gallery
- Magellan Geographix, a
US vendor of digital maps from different parts of the
world. Here it is possible to browse an online World
Atlas for free.
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University
of Texas, holds more than 230,000 maps covering every
area of the world.
just a small selection:
Surveying & Land Information Group
Members, list of the National Mapping Agencies of Europe.
The NMAs of the Nordic countries are National Survey of Finland, Lantmäteriverket in Sweden,
Statens Kartverk in
Norway, Kort &
Matrikelstyrelsen in Denmark (browse
maps of Denmark), and Landmaelingar
Islands in Iceland.
- Geodetic Survey of
- Institut Géographique
- National Atlas
Information Service, Canada
Geophysical Data Center, USA. The National
Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) manages environmental data
in the fields of marine geology and geophysics,
paleoclimatology, solar-terrestrial physics, solid earth
geophysics, and glaciology (snow and ice). In each of
these fields NGDC also operates a World Data Center (WDC
A) discipline center.
Medium Resolution Digital Vector Shoreline
- Ordnance Survey, UK
- U.S. Geological Survey
Reference Resources. This list is maintained by the
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, The University
of Texas at Austin.
des sources d'informations géographiques numériques,
Conseil National de l'Information Géographique, France. Système
d'information géographique pour la Communauté
Européenne GISCO EUROSTAT
of Software for Field Biologists by Marco Bleeker,
the Netherlands. Ecology, statistics, mapping, taxonomy,
identification, management of collections. - This is a
superb site for finding information on biological
software; the descriptions are quite detailed and pricing
information is included. I strongly recommend a visit to
this site, especially if you happen to live in the
Benelux countries (Marco has information on several Dutch
mapping related programs not mentioned on this page at
all). There are also some free programs that you can
- COUNTRY NAMES:
CIA World Factbook lists the countries and
dependencies as found in ISO 3166-1. In addition,
it lists more dependencies - primarily small
islands and island groups belonging to the US -
and it gives more names per country or
Nations Member States List. This listing only
has member nations and only gives a single name
Information Sources by the Centre for Global &
Regional Environmental research, University of Iowa.
- Geographic Information for Europe
of Cartographic Terms, The Perry-Castañeda Library
Map Collection, The University of Texas at Austin.
Directory for Botany: Checklists, Floras, Taxonomical
Databases, Vegetation. Links to global and regional
plant lists, flora projects, floristic databases etc.
- Local Times
Around the World, from an Australian website. Similar
data is available from many other sites, for instance,
from the Astrodienst
Atlas Query (Zürich, Switzerland). From the Swiss
server you get, apart from the time, also the coordinates
of the selected place name, and a map showing its
- Math Forum
Internet Resource Collection
Atlas on SchoolNet - L'Atlas national sur le Rescol
canadien. Interactive learning about Canada and its
geography, maintained by Natural Resources Canada. Here
is also a glossary
of cartographic terms.
Bookmarks - The Fascinating World of Maps and Mapping.
Over 6,600 (June 99) mapping related links collected by
Roelof P. Oddens, the Netherlands.
Geography Resources by Paul Gunther, University of
Wisconsin. Links to sites with weather and
climatological, earth topography, vegetation, soils and
Spatially Oriented Research in Ecology by Jason
- SPOT IMAGE offers you
up-to-date information about the French SPOT satellites:
how it works, how to use the data, where to buy it, and
European GIS databases: A review of the Baltic Sea region
experiences. A paper by Sindre Langaas,
- U.S. Census
Bureau: Geographic Starting Points
VIRTUAL EARTH - A Tour of the World Wide Web For Earth
Scientists and The
SOFT EARTH -- A Tour of the Web for Geoscientists,
introductory guides to the by Phillip Ingram, Australia.
Virtual Library: Cartography Resources, Commercial
Mapping, maintained Jeremy Crampton, Department of
Geography, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia,
Virtual Library: Geography, maintained Heather
- WWW Virtual
Library: Remote Sensing, maintained by Seppo
Väätäinen in VTT, The Technical Research Centre of
- Yahoo: Business
Home Page of the Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of
Natural History (H)
Updated 16 June, 1999 by Raino Lampinen